Cumberbatch o'

Likely conversation...

Stacey's acquaintance: "Cumberbatch? That's a funny coincidence. Like that British actor...?"
Stacey: "No.  It is not funny."

If Stacey did not know.  She would not know.  (repeat 2x).
But she did know.  And so, with a precision our condition in this era and this place call for, she could know that she knew and act like she know.

bone tired.

black existence.
white domination.
infinite delivery systems.
bone tired.

"It was not clear what he meant." 2x. (no...3x).

[yesterday]  According to police, drug control officers were patrolling Talbot Avenue just before 7 p.m. when they allegedly saw Ferguson running down the street with a silver weapon in his hand. The officers exited their cruiser and drew their guns, ordering Ferguson to drop the weapon, the statement said.
Ferguson allegedly pointed his gun at the officers for a moment, but then fled.
A “lengthy foot pursuit” through several back yards followed, during which officers repeatedly commanded Ferguson to drop his gun, police alleged. At some point, he allegedly discarded the gun. They were able to apprehend him at 525 Talbot Ave.
After taking Ferguson into custody, officers retraced their steps to find the firearm.
Upon catching the suspect, officers allegedly asked Ferguson, “What were you thinking? You almost got shot back there.”
According to police, Ferguson replied with a nervous laugh, “Good looks, man.” It was not clear what he meant.
(..good looking out for not killing me?) 

"Old Ceasar is the Best!"

Imagine. mid-1700s ‘lection days: when slaves were given unofficial titles of governors and kings in a great pageant.  Young masters and missus cheering on for their plantation’s ‘candidate’.  Why would they act this way?  Their parents would let them actually scream out, “Old Ceasar is the best!” 

In New England, Election Day was not just a special day to white citizens, but to the slave population as well. Depending on the location within New England, slaves in the mid-18th century elected black governors and kings. While the position of governor or king did not entitle the elected slave to official power, it gave the winner status among slaves.
The first elections of black kings and governors began in the early 18th century in New England capital cities and charter colonies. Elections were held in Newport, Rhode Island in 1756, in Hartford, Connecticut in 1766, and by the 1770s, in Norwich, Connecticut and Salem, Massachusetts. By the end of the 18th century, similar elections took place in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Danvers, Lynn, and North Bridgewater, Massachusetts. Black elections took place over the course of a week, and occurred at the same time as white elections.
The title of king or governor depended upon whether a slave lived in a colony or royal colony. In colonies where whites chose their own governors, such as Connecticut and Rhode Island, elected black officials were called governors. In royal colonies, such as New Hampshire, where white governors were appointed, black elected officials were called kings.
Food, activities, socializing, lobbying, and clothing were important to the celebration. Most slaves borrowed clothing from their masters and mistresses. The most popular attire was uniforms since it was considered dignified. A slave master was also aware of the importance of his slave's attire. Slaves had the same status as their master, so a poorly dressed slave was a reflection on the master. Therefore, masters did not hesitate to provide appropriate attire.
Election Day activities were also central to the celebration. Activities were a combination of African American and Euro-American traditions. For instance, from white traditions came pitching pennies and quoits and from black traditions came wrestling, stick fighting, and dancing. Other activities common to both cultures were running races and jumping activities.
Like in white elections, only men were allowed to vote, but women lobbied for the candidate they supported. Candidates also lobbied on their own behalf. Voting differed depending on the location. Some used voice vote, while in other places voters stood in line behind the candidate they supported.
After the results were tallied, candidates were honored in an inaugural parade. Gunfire and music accompanied participants as they marched to the post-election party. The parade ended at the home of the master of the slave governor or king. Slaves then enjoyed the post-election celebration given by the winner's master. The master of the elected official provided the food, alcohol, and decorations for the celebration. The festivities included dancing, drinking, and socializing.
While the black governor or king did not have official power, whites supported black elections. Whites thought that the elections were amusing and not a threat. It was also beneficial to them because they wanted to use black governors and kings as enforcers of social propriety. However, for slaves it was a time to freely socialize and take part in the festivities. For the newly elected official, he was able to enjoy the status of his position as king or governor.
                                                                            -Black Election Day in New England, By Jessica McElrath

Why did the master let this happen?
Same reason why they ‘abolished’ the word slavery…
Same reason they re-worded Plessey vs. Ferguson
Same reason they freed Mandela…
Same reason they hired Obama…

Shango. Shango sees things.


There are things that are destroying us.
Beast-heart is accomplishing much with our division.
Sister Souljah, (shango) asked 20 years ago, "Do you give a f***?"

1960s 2parent familes were 78% of all black familes.
1970s 2parent families were 64%
1980s 2parent families were 48%
1985  2parent families were 40%
1990 2 parent families were 37%.

Yes.  This IS one of the strongest generations in a while.  ...but as courageous as they are, they will fall...we need shango vision.  asi sister ashi an awo.  Cawban pioh wah.

Irrepressible Afrikan Livity

Former bitter foes Vito Gray (left) and Victor Woods have found peace.
While worshipers read Scriptures and sang hymns one Sunday morning, two men came across each other in the hallway of Dorchester’s Greater Love Tabernacle Church.
“I love you, man,” one said.
A smile sprang to the other man’s face. “How’s the family?”
There was no sign of a dark past or the rage that had festered between them for two decades, ever since a brilliant autumn morning in a Mission Hill housing project when one of them got a knife and went hunting for the other, bent on retribution.
On that day in 1991, one man left the other for dead, with a deep gash in his gut.

‘Our young men are threatened — by each other. Why? That’s what we have to find out. Once we eliminate the threat, then we can find a solution.’ — Vito Gray

But now the two — Vito Gray and Victor Woods, former rivals who abided by seemingly immutable rules of the street — are friends. They say it’s because of a single transformative moment not long ago, when, in a brief exchange, they simply forgave each other.
Now they point to their example as a way to help bring peace to neighborhoods where young men kill one another — sometimes in endless cycles of revenge.

“This is a miracle,’’ Woods said of the path out of darkness he and Gray traveled. “Once you are in that life, it is really hard to get out.” Forgiveness, he said, can be a potent weapon, especially in gang cultures that demand violent responses to even the smallest slights.
Recently, Gray, arms and legs trembling, stood before the congregation in the Dorchester church, telling his story during an interfaith service as Mayor Martin J. Walsh and Police Commissioner William Evans listened in stunned silence.
He wants to convince them and other Boston leaders to enlist people like him and Woods to tell their stories in neighborhoods where violence has been flaring this year.

“Our young men are threatened — by each other,” he said. “Why? That’s what we have to find out. Once we eliminate the threat, then we can find a solution, because we can give them services or give them jobs. But if we don’t eliminate the threat, we’ll have a kid going to work with a gun in his pocket.”
The Rev. Jeffrey Brown, the former executive director of the Boston TenPoint Coalition, said some street conflicts have gone on for so long that the participants can’t even identify the cause of the original feud. He said that old rivals like Woods and Gray might teach young men to let go of old beefs, and that such messages should be incorporated in the effort to end violence.

“It’s time to revisit all forms of the antiviolence process,’’ Brown said.
Today, the lives of Gray, 44, and Woods, 53, bear little resemblence to their past. Gray is a father. Woods is a grandfather. They say they got there through faith, a pastor who never gave up on them, and the hard lessons learned from wasted years in addiction.
There was a time when both were dangerous to other people — and to themselves.
When Gray was entering his 20s, he was a drug dealer with a growing criminal record and a user. By the time he was 21, he was hard to the core.

In November 1991, he recalled, he hid 10 small bags of heroin behind a radiator in a hallway in the Mission Hill housing development where he was living with his mother. He planted the drugs in a building away from his home and had planned on retrieving them later to sell and buy more drugs to feed his addiction.
But when he returned a few hours later the stash was gone.
Woods, dealing heroin and using himself, knew where to find the drugs. Everybody knew, he said. “I was the one who took it,” he acknowledges.

Rage consumed Gray as he pounded the streets of the development looking for Woods. He said he felt he needed to retaliate, to prove to the thief and anyone who knew him that there was a heavy price for such disrespect.
Around 10:30 a.m. on Nov. 26, he found Woods near Parker Street, according to documents in Suffolk Superior Court.
They knew each other and grew up in the same Mission Hill projects. They shared mutual friends.
“Where are the drugs that you took?’’ Gray demanded as he approached.
He didn’t wait for an answer. He plunged a knife into Woods’s hip and belly, holding tightly on to Woods as he crumpled, Woods testified to a Suffolk Superior Court grand jury in February 1992.
Gray said he stabbed Woods at least two more times in the legs.
Then he ran.

Woods did not see blood. Looking back, he recalls the knife and a male driver offering to take him to the hospital.
“That was the last thing I remember,’’ he recalled.
Wood told the grand jury that he had grabbed his stomach and began to scream. “I’m bleeding. I’m bleeding,’’ he testified.

A Globe photographer captured an image of Woods in the passenger side of the car, while two emergency workers tended to him. His face looked pained, his mouth agape.
“I was angry at Vito,’’ recalled Woods. “I was mad. I was real mad. It was all about revenge.”
Police found Gray a half-hour later. After he posted bail, he later helped to rob Woods of $58 and tried to intimidate him into not testifying against him, court records show. Gray eventually pleaded guilty in Suffolk Superior Court and was given an eight- to 10-year sentence at MCI-Cedar Junction in Walpole. He served 6½ years. He was angry at Woods for ratting him out.

“I was still struggling with a bad attitude and with addiction,’’ Gray says now.
After prison, he went back to Mission Hill and took up the same bad habits, with the same bad people. Police knew him by name.
By age 27, Gray was back in prison for drug possession. But during his four years at MCI-Shirley, he says, he changed. It started when a prison guard relayed news that Gray’s girlfriend lost their daughter, who was born prematurely. That day Gray said he got on his knees and prayed.
“I prayed because I couldn’t get the peace I wanted from anyone else,’’ he said. “I’m no preacher or anything, but God forgave me. And I felt happy. People say how could you be happy in prison? But I say, on that day I understood what forgiveness means.”
He asked the prison chaplain for a Bible.

Woods’s path came with its own suffering. After the stabbing, there was surgery and staples in his stomach. But he went back to the streets and the life he knew there. On his rounds, he said he had to walk past the Tobin community center, where the Rev. William Dickerson held church. He’d hear the preaching. And on Wednesdays around 7, he’d hear the choir rehearsing.
He started feeling guilty that he was dealing nearby, and he began staying away or leaving the area before church began. Still, he passed by. The soulful singing and the piano playing inside pulled at him, and finally he walked in.
For a while, he would sit in the back row quietly, listening.
Then he started helping out, packing up chairs after choir practice or sweeping up.
Eventually he became a member.
“At that time he was struggling,’’ said Dickerson. “He had his ups and downs.”
A few years later around 2001, Gray got out of prison and found Dickerson and his Greater Love Tabernacle Church. He learned that Woods was a member. It didn’t stop him from coming, but he made no contact.

Then, during a Sunday service three years ago, as the offering was being collected, Dickerson stood in the pulpit preaching and spotted Woods walking down from the balcony of the church, unknowingly heading toward Gray. Dickerson called both to the front of the church and there asked them to apologize to each other before everyone.
“I said ‘Victor, you wanted an apology and you also wanted to apologize,’ ” said Dickerson. “You can do it now before the whole church.”
Gray spoke first. He apologized for stabbing Woods and causing him pain.
Woods also said he was sorry.
The men hugged.
“I can’t describe how that felt,’’ said Gray. “It felt warm. I felt love.”
People cried. Men jumped out of their seats to join the embrace. The church said in chorus: “Hallelujah.’’
On a recent day inside the church, Gray, dressed in jeans and a plaid shirt, picked up crumbled strips of tissue paper strewn on the burgundy carpet.

“There was a funeral here yesterday,’’ Gray explained.
Mourners had come to grieve Julien Jerome Printemps, a 22-year-old from Charlestown who was gunned down in Ashmont Jan. 26, a few hours after Gray shared his story of healing at the interfaith service. Printemps’s death drew little attention in the news.
Woods arrived at the church later and sat near Gray for an interview with a reporter. At one point, he lifted up his sweatshirt to expose the small stab wound on his stomach and the large incision doctors made to save him.
Gray said it hurts to know how much pain he caused.
“God has forgiven me, and I thank Victor for forgiving me,’’ he said.
He and Woods have put the past behind them. Woods is working now as a laborer in New York and isn’t around much. But the two share a new look on life.
Said Woods: “We are like brothers in Christ now.”
Meghan E. Irons can be reached at Follow her on Twitter @meghanirons.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
“This is a miracle,’’ Woods said of the path out of darkness he and Gray traveled."

[no. it is irrepressible Afrikan livity]

"Recently, Gray, arms and legs trembling, stood before the congregation in the Dorchester church, telling his story during an interfaith service as Mayor Martin J. Walsh and Police Commissioner William Evans listened in stunned silence."
[those furthest from irrepressible Afrikan livity are most stunned]

"He wants to convince them and other Boston leaders to enlist people like him and Woods to tell their stories in neighborhoods where violence has been flaring this year."

“Our young men are threatened — by each other,” he said. “Why? That’s what we have to find out.
[Seen? They don't know WHY? (nor the pulpit men na now WHY either) ...idren na start out alienated, self-manipulating and self-threatening...we are MADE to self-hate, not love and be warm pon wi bruddah.]

"Once we eliminate the threat, then we can find a solution, because we can give them services or give them jobs. But if we don’t eliminate the threat, we’ll have a kid going to work with a gun in his pocket.”

Black Basketball from the day: Current NBA stars honor their Black Fives predecessors

As we approach the wind-down days of Black History Month 2014, it’s refreshing to see other Black contributors besides the usual few names often presented — such as overlooked Black athletes who labored in virtual obscurity during the Jim Crow era.
Thanks to the nonprofit Black Fives Foundation in New York for “tell[ing] the story of the pre-1950 history of African Americans in basketball.” The “Black Fives” name comes from the all-Black basketball teams that played in Brooklyn, Harlem, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., Chicago, Pittsburgh, Newark and Los Angeles.
Timberwolves (l-r) Corey Brewer, Dante Cunningham and Kevin Martin  participated in the “Original Pioneers” shorts. Photos courtesy of the Timberwolves
Timberwolves (l-r) Corey Brewer, Dante Cunningham
and Kevin Martin participated in the
“Original Pioneers” shorts.
Photos courtesy of the Timberwolves
These teams “ushered in the Harlem Renaissance period, smashed the color barrier in pro basketball and helped pave the way for the Civil Rights Movement,” wrote founder Claude Johnson on the foundation’s website (
Johnson and director Loren Mendell teamed up with Fox Sports Net, which broadcasts NBA games for 13 teams including the Minnesota Timberwolves, to create a series of 30-second TV vignettes honoring Black Fives era pioneers during Black History Month. They are aired during halftime of the telecasts.
“They [Fox Sports Net] just called out of the blue” last summer, said Johnson in an MSR phone interview. “They were trying to find some new content for Black History Month that involves sports.”
Thirty-five NBA players read scripts co-written by Johnson and Mendell on pioneers selected by Johnson. For example, Los Angeles Clippers guard Chris Paul talks about Hudson “Huddy” Oliver, who won four “Colored Basketball World Championships” with three different all-Black teams (1908-1911).
Timberwolves players Corey Brewer, Dante Cunningham and Kevin Martin were among the participants in the “Original Pioneers” shorts.
“It was interesting,” says Brewer. “It is always good to learn something new in Black history.”
“Honestly it was a privilege to be able to do it,” adds Cunningham, who noted his appreciation for the Black Fives era players who “laid the foundation for me and other young Black males just to be here today. Those things weren’t as easy for them.”
“We now have 30-35 players, some of them major stars, who have some knowledge [of the Black Fives players and teams],” says Johnson. “That’s a great start.” He also praised Fox Sports Net for doing something novel — “the fact that they are even thinking of this idea to get a modern-day player [to] read this script into the camera. The players were very enthusiastic and excited about it. It was all voluntary.”
A year ago, a mural featuring the Black Fives was installed inside the main concourse of the Barclays Center, the home of the Brooklyn Nets. “We have six vintage images of African American basketball teams and players that are Brooklyn-related that are installed permanently in the Barclays Center,” says Johnson proudly. “You can’t escape them when you come into the arena. Everybody sees them.”
Johnson features Black women hoopsters as well, such as the New York Girls (1910-1914), who were the first all-Black female basketball team. “The African American all-women basketball teams sponsored by thePhiladelphia Tribune of the 1930s probably were the best team[s] ever, men or women, because they won 11 straight Black national championships in the 1930s and going into the 1940s.”
Both Brewer and Cunningham say if asked they would do the Original Pioneers vignettes again. “There are a lot of things Black people did that people don’t know about. It means a lot to Black culture,” says Brewer.
“It definitely gave me a new perspective… I definitely learned something new,” says Cunningham.
 Charles Hallman welcomes reader responses to
To see more stories by Charles Hallman stories click HERE

"New Tobacco Agreement Excludes African American Media"

"New Tobacco Agreement Excludes African American Media"

"...But she could not escape her growing doubts about the industry and her role in it, especially the aggressive targeting of black communities and young people. The breaking point for Wright was the Kool Mixx campaign. Her job was to encourage retailers to place colorful Kool Mixx displays — which featured cartoon images of rappers, DJs and partying African-Americans — near cookie and candy sections.

"That campaign just made me sick. I really understood that this company was targeting African-American youth. I could see it clearly," she said. "I didn't even want a severance package. I wanted to quit."

She became a whistle-blower and a tobacco-prevention advocate, giving talks and sharing her insider's knowledge with anti-tobacco groups.

Now she firmly believes that tobacco companies need to redress their targeting of African-Americans.

We don’t smoke that s---, we just sell it.
We reserve that right for the young, the poor,
the black and the stupid.

Unnamed tobacco executive"

“You will love the things that destroy..."

"disciplesofmalcolm: “You will love the things that destroy..."

“You will love the things that destroy you, and you will hate the things that advance your growth. Look at your behavior. Look at the behavior of your compatriots and watch if what I’m saying is not true.

'I hate to read. I hate to study. I hate to learn. Oh, but I love to party. I love to smoke. I like to drink. I love to screw.' And all the loves you will find will be loves that what? That don’t advance you one bit, and yet you can’t get over them. You’re addicted to them.

But things that lead to growth, to growth and wisdom, knowledge, you see, self-understanding and self-discovery, healthy relations, self-control; all those things are hateful.

But this is the only way a minority can rule over a majority of people, is by turning their minds backwards. So that they love the things that destroy them and hate the things that move them forward. In order for these people to rule over us, we must hate learning. This has to be built into us.

If we were into learning, if we were into research, and into thinking, and into real philosophical ideas and abstraction, we would defeat those people. They know it. So consequently, what they must do is rob you of all of these things so that they may stay in their place.”

-Dr. Amos N. Wilson

Is Africa's Economy Under the Threat of Recolonization? - Atlanta Black Star


Is Africa's Economy Under the Threat of Recolonization? - Atlanta Black Star:

PTSD & well produced radio programming - (20 min. Must hear)

Heard this powerful story a month ago on the radio outside of St. Louis. The author/interviewer (Kotlowitz) did a clever, though simple thing here, by wondering if the effect of urban violence was comparable to the trauma that a person experiences from war. Kotlowitz talks to a military vet from Afghanistan and a guy from Philadelphia who’s lived in some pretty bad neighborhoods to find out if they are doubles of some sort.  It is well mixed and edited.  Starts at minute 33:30.  You WILL be hooked if you start this 25 min story.  Teachers, this is an excellent prompt on POLICY and SOCIETY effect on young modern human men (i.e. how are these two kids doubles and how are the NOT).  

Brandon & Curtis ARE doubles...up to a point.  Please comment.

Another good related link here:

Fascinating: Mythical Lancelot killed by the comments


BNF Français 118: Lancelot du Lac
f. 200v
France (c. 1400-1425)
Vellum Codex
Bibliothèque Nationale
I’m having a hard time figuring out why these two naked men are fighting with swords, so if any of you Arthurian fans out there can explain, I’d be happy to know.

OMG I WORKED ON THIS MANUSCRIPT FOR MY PhD WOOOO I CAN BE USEFUL. That said I was looking mostly at the pretty clothes and heraldry, but ahem. The Mandragore database (part of the BNF) describes this as “Combat de Lancelot et des automates”, which, yeah, is (according to whoever titled it) Lancelot vs. Medieval Robots. But I don’t want to stop just there.
But first, some background on why this is going to be difficult and annoy me. The story is the Lancelot-Graal cycle, aka the Vulgate Cycle, aka the Prose Lancelot, aka holy cow this thing is long the only full English translation is like 5 volumes minimum. BUT This image is one folio (page leaf) after Lancelot hanging out at the Dolorous Guard, so it’s around that point in the story, and I managed to find a googleBooks scan of this section of the Vulgate (which is entitled “Lancelot du Lac”). Yay! It looks like they’re supposed to be the “two knights cast in copper” [x]. Which explains their colour, but does not explain why the fellow on the left seems to have curly hair (which, if he’s meant to be a knight, would be weird, since that wasn’t fashionable at the time, and illuminators almost always dressed knights in fashion, even if they were antagonists, unless they were in hermit-mode or there was a very specific narrative reason). It doesn’t explain why the guy on the right has black/sub-Saharan features (the artists were very good at drawing faces in this manuscript). And it certainly doesn’t explain why they’re naked.
I wish I had the Middle French edition of this, because I want to see whether the only translation possible is “cast in copper”, or whether it could also be translated as “the colour of copper”. Because the narrative doesn’t seem to indicate they’re ‘automatons’ (even though Lancelot vs the Robots is hilarious), but is rather an extrapolation from the text. Certainly the illumination supports this!
Edit because just saw ginnabean's comment from her prof: Hm. The modern French translation has “sculptés en cuivre”, but I’d still really like to see the Middle French…
Re: Other comments on this post: 
It’s definitely much too early in the manuscript (which is actually four volumes, BNF Fr. 117-120) for Lancelot to be dying.  Lancelot being killed by Moors/Turks I know happens in Le Morte Darthur, which is a liberal English compilation of various Arthurian bits and pieces. Do you know if it occurs in the Vulgate? These MSs also have a really distinct way of depicting people from “the east”: this picture makes it REALLY CLEAR who’s the “other”.
The “ghost sword” on the left is a result of this manuscript having been re/over-painted. They were originally finished around 1404 (as we’ve a record of the manuscripts being bought in 1405), but another owner had them updated/retouched in 1460. This included changing faces, hands, poses, clothes, and backgrounds. It’s really most obvious in this illumination, where the overpainted “natural” background is damaged and reveals the original patterned background (and a horse’s bum).
For medievalpoc: This got me to go back through my files of this manuscript! Groadain in folio 223v definitely looks like he’s supposed to be PoC (I think particularly interesting because he’s a dwarf). F. 250 has a darker-skinned king, which I can’t track down in an easily-linkable form but could upload. And now I want to dig through the manuscripts I used during PhD properly to see what else I missed. I do remember, there was some reeeeally interesting use of clothing in some of them to “other” enemy combatants who physically didn’t look much different from the knights.

P.P.S. sorry everyone if this went too academic-speak. Or short-handy. I’m trying to write this really quickly before heading to sleep and so I may have been jargony without realizing it.

unspun on tumblr • medievalpoc: BNF Français 118: Lancelot du Lac ...:

Introducing the African rock art...

"theolduvaigorge: Introducing the African rock art..."

Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938

Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938 contains more than 2,300 first-person accounts of slavery and 500 black-and-white photographs of former slaves. These narratives were collected in the 1930s as part of the Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and assembled and microfilmed in 1941 as the seventeen-volume Slave Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in the United States from Interviews with Former Slaves. This online collection is a joint presentation of the Manuscript and Prints and Photographs Divisions of the Library of Congress and includes more than 200 photographs from the Prints and Photographs Division that are now made available to the public for the first time.

Seneca Village, NYC

"Most upsetting thing I've learned this semester: African Americans took thirty years to establish Seneca Village, NYC as an autonomous village with churches, homes, organizations where they could have freedom and exert political control. The village was destroyed by white backlash culminating in the creation of Central Park on that site to, which successfully erased it from the city's history." 

First American arrested with help from drone is sentenced — RT USA

Maintenence personel check a Predator drone operated by U.S. Office of Air and Marine (OAM), before its surveillance flight near the Mexican border. (AFP Photo / John Moore)First American arrested with help from drone is sentenced — RT USA

We lived in freedom

We lived in freedom
Before man appeared:
Our world was undisturbed,
One day followed the other joyfully,
Dissent was never heard.
   Then man broke into our forest
   With cunning and beligerence,
   He pursued us
   With greed and envy:
Our freedom vanished.
                                                                     SONG OF THE TURTLE
                                                                     Traditional Ghanian poem